Novocherkassk is the town in Rostov region. It borders with the Oktyabrsky and Aksaysky districts of Rostov region. The total area of the town is 13412.1 ha (within the town 12297.9 ha). The population is 184.5 thousand people
Novocherkassk was founded on the 18th of May (Old Style) or on the 30th of May (New Style) 1805 by the Host ataman (Cossack army commander) Matvey Ivanovitch Platov following the project of military engineer lieutenant-general Franc Devolant. The new Cossacks capital – the New Cherkassk town was built using the most contemporary examples of European architecture of the epoque but at the same time taking into account the Cossack cultural traditions.
Being the administrative capital of the Don Cossacks, Novocherkassk was inhabited mainly by people of Cossack origin. But there were also residents from other places, including people of different nationalities.
During the Revolution years Novocherkassk served as the refuge for the Provisional government. Two white armies were created there – the Don army and the Voluntary army. In fact, Novocherkassk was the center of counterrevolution from 1917 until January 1920. When the Soviet power came to the town, Novocherkassk was reduced in its status from a Cossack capital to the regional and later the town center, and later became a big industrial, scientific and cultural center of the Don land.
The leading sector of the town economy is manufacturing industry. As an industrial center Novocherkassk is famed for:
locomotive-building plant JSC “NPO NEVZ”,
electrode production plant,
Novocherkassk hydropower plant, the biggest in the South of the country,
unique production company “Magnit”,
Novocherkassk Synthetics Plant, etc.
In Novocherkassk are situated the biggest in the South: the South Russian State Technical University, Melioration Engineering Academy, Military Communication Institute, 6 research institutes, 11 colleges and technical schools of secondary education, Novocherkassk Suvorov Military School of the Ministry of internal affairs of Russia, Don Military School, 23 secondary schools, 3 boarding schools, 4 orphanages.
59-б, Platovskiy St
Rostov Region, Russia
Novocherkassk boasts the oldest drama theatre in the Don land (since 1825), the unique Museum of the History of the Don Cossacks with its branches (Memorial house-museum of the painter I. I. Krylov, Memorial house-museum of the painter of battle-pieces M. B. Grekov, Memorial house-museum of the poet V. Kalmykov, the Ataman Palace), musical school of P. I. Tchaikovsky, more than 10 Cultural centres and Pushkin central library. In 2002 the town celebrated the 40th anniversary of 1962 Novocherkassk tragedy (2nd of June). To commemorate the Novocherkassk tragedy a Memorial museum of the victims was opened and a monument inaugurated in the new cemetery, where 26 dead people were buried.
More than 15 orthodox churches are open in Novocherkassk, including the Host Cathedral of Ascension, the 3rd biggest cathedral in Russia, Catholic church, Lutheran church. An orthodox Armenian Gregorian church will be built soon as well.
About 200 thousand people of 88 nationalities live in Novocherkassk, among them about 60 thousand war and labour veterans, about 50 thousand students, about 48 thousand people work in industry, commerce and services. There are 25 healthcare organizations in the town, including lung-surgical hospital, the emergency hospital, dermatovenerologic clinic, psycho-neurological asylum, narcological clinic, immunology laboratory, center of medical physical training, pathologoanatomic office, centre of preventative medicine, etc.
There are 5 sports schools for children functioning in the town, 5 stadiums, 52 gyms, 16 sports clubs, 1 swimming pool, 86 open sports grounds, 1 track and field athletic arena, etc. More than 13.5 thousand people are members of sports clubs and teams. Novocherkassk volleyball team “Donchanka” plays in the Supreme League of the national volleyball championship among female teams, the men’s basketball team “Donskie sokoly” (Don falcons) plays in the 1st League. There were created 16 stanitsas (offices) of registered (state) Cossacks and several stanitsas of public Cossacks in the town.
Novocherkassk is a historical and modern capital of the Don Cossacks.
Among the famous town monuments can be mentioned the monument to the founder of the town, the Host ataman count M.I. Platov (1853), the monument to the legendary Cossack Yermak (1904), the monument to the hero of Caucasian wars, general Baklanov (1911).
The revival of the Don Cossacks began during the years of democratic reforms. Novocherkassk was recognized not only as an historical, but also a modern capital of the Don Cossacks and the Cossacks of whole of Russia. The foreign Cossack communities recognize Novocherkassk as the world capital of Cossacks.
In 19th August, 2003 the town-dwellers celebrated the 250th anniversary of the town founder, the Host ataman M.I. Platov. Today the town is preparing for another significant event – the 200th anniversary of Novocherkassk.