The population of the region is 4 225,9 million people. This includes 2 872,7 million people who reside in cities and 1 353,2 million people who live in rural areas.
The region ranks 6th place in Russia in terms of resident population after Moscow, Moscow region, Krasnodar region, Saint Petersburg and Sverdlovsk region. Among other Southern federal district entities, the region comes second after Krasnodar region.
Population density is 42.0 people per 1 square kilometer.
In terms of national composition, 90.3% of the population are Russians, 2.6% Armenians, 1.9% Ukrainians, 0.9% Turks, 0,4% Azerbaijani. Representatives of over 150 different nationalities live in the Rostov region. Mutual respect of the peoples and traditionally though economic and cultural ties are the main values cherished on the Don.
The working-age population makes 56.6% of the total amount. The educational level of the people in the economically active age is sufficiently high.
The average annual number of individuals employed in economic activities is 1.956 million people, including 1.3 million people employed in private enterprises and organizations.
Demographic situation in the Rostov region shows increased natural decline in population, increased life expectancy. Number of born per 1000 is 10,3, number dead 13,4. Life expectancy at birth makes 73 years (at the end of 2017).